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Biogas, gas & methane

Biogas, gas & methane

This category contains books and other products that can be classified under the term of gas including natural gas, methane, hydrogen and biogas.

Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas originates from biogenic material and is a type of biofuel. Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as biomass, manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste, plant material and energy crops. This type of biogas comprises primarily methane and carbon dioxide. Other types of gas generated by use of biomass is wood gas, which is created by gasification of wood or other biomass. This type of gas consist primarily of nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide, with trace amounts of methane.

The gases methane, hydrogen and carbon monoxide can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. Air contains 21% oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel. Biogas can be used as a low-cost fuel in any country for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in modern waste management facilities where it can be used to run any type of heat engine, to generate either mechanical or electrical power. Biogas can be compressed, much like natural gas, and used to power motor vehicles and in the UK for example is estimated to have the potential to replace around 17% of vehicle fuel. Biogas is a renewable fuel, so it qualifies for renewable energy subsidies in some parts of the world.


Gas Dynamics - ebook
SKU: gd/ebook/000
Binding: pdf - ebook, download. 500 pages17 pages.

This book is written for the average student who wants to learn the fundamentals of gas dynamics. It aims at the undergraduate level and thus requires a minimum of prerequisites. The writing style is informal and incorporates ideas in educational technology such as behavioral objectives, meaningful summaries, and check tests. Such features make this book well suited for self-study as well as for conventional course presentation. Sufficient material is included for a typical one-quarter or onesemester course, depending on the student’s background.

Methane - biogas - production guide
SKU: mbpg/ebook/ooo/ooo

The book starts by describing the basic properties of methane or biogas. This gas can be made using simple apparatus and a process know as anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion is one of the most common biological procedures in nature, as the name implies, it means to carry or breakdown in the absence of air. Once you know the principles of this process it is possible to make biogas in small or large quantities from a variety of waste materials. The ebook describes making an anaerobic digester using an oil drum and a rubber inner tube as the gas storage vessel aswell as a larger continuous digester. The ebook also contains diagrams list of materials and websites for further reading.

Methane Recovery from Animal Manures - ebook - The current opportunities casebook
SKU: mrfam/ebook/000/000
Binding: ebook - pdf

150 page pdf document.

Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only provides pollution prevention but also can convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion (AD) of livestock manures is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the AD animal manures. U.S. livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: slurry, plug-flow, complete-mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Case studies of operating digesters, with project and maintenance histories and the operators “lessons learned,” are included as reality checks. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some AD projects fail, are provided. The role of farm management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at farms willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. More than two decades of research has provided much information about how manure can be converted to an energy source; however, the American farmer has not been motivated to adopt new practices. More cost-effective and easily managed manure management techniques are still needed to encourage farmers to use animal manure for conversion into energy and nutrients, especially for smaller farms. AD benefits farmers monetarily and mitigates possible manure pollution problems, thereby sustaining development while maintaining environmental quality. Moreover, rural economic development will benefit from the implicit multiplier effect resulting from jobs created by implementing digester systems. Promising future waste-to-profit activities may add to the economic performance of AD. New end-use applications, which provide added value to coproducts, are discussed.

Methane Production from Manure on Farms
SKU: mpfmf/ebook/000
Binding: pdf - ebook, download. 17 pages.

An overview of methane production from manure on farms. Covers how it works and the major issues involved.

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Nepal Biogas Plant -- Construction Manual
SKU: nbgp/ebook/000
Binding: ebook - pdf - 15 pages

Small Biogas Plant Plans from Nepal. Nice construction manual written some time ago but with drawing and some b&w photographs.

3-Cubic Metre Biogas Plant a Construction Manual - ebook
SKU: 3cmbcm/ebook/000/000

Very interesting paper on making a family scale BIO gas plant that produces methane from manure. Lots of detail on the design, construction and operation.

40 page ebook in PDF. Line drawings with lots of detail.

Fuel Cell Handbook - ebook
SKU: fc/ebook/000
Binding: pdf - ebook, download. 268 pages

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of a reaction directly into electrical energy. The basic physical structure or building block of a fuel cell consists of an electrolyte layer in contact with a porous anode and cathode on either side.

This 268 page ebook is an excellent source of information.

Biogas Methane Explained & Other Articles
SKU: bmeoa/ebook/000/000
Binding: ebook - pdf

In these articles the author has endeavoured to explain why biogas is green and renewable when used as an energy source, and how it is produced by the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. A number of methods of producing methane biogas using AD are also discussed, so that the reader will understand exactly what biogas methane is and the implications for our planet of its creation and use.

biogas factsheet - ebook
SKU: lili/b/ebook/000/000
Binding: ebook - pdf

Biogas is mostly methane (around 60%) with carbon dioxide (around 40%) and a little hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide. It is made by anaerobic bacteria breaking down organic matter in the absence of oxygen (when the organic matter is waterlogged – i.e. a slurry). Biogas is generated naturally in the mud at the bottom of marshes; it is called marsh gas, and often ignites. The process also occurs in landfill sites, and in the digestive system of humans and other animals.

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The How to Build a Hydrogen Generator Book - ebook
SKU: agua/htbahgb/7030
Binding: Pdf - Zip file. Main document 64 pages.

Your buying a guide showing you HOW TO BUILD A HYDROGEN GENERATOR & RUN YOUR VEHICLE ON WATER set in an Easy to Read Beginners level format (process made simple).


- The methods are extremely simple, making the process possible for anyone, everyone, ANYWHERE.
- Hydrogen Generators can be easily installed in ANY model vehicle, tractor, Generator, type of machinery in general.
- Typical tools, hardware & supplies are used, making access to parts available.

The Process Water is pumped into a chamber where electrodes are vibrated using an electrical pulse, which breaks up H2O (regular tap water) into H2 (Hydrogen). Hydrogen is a very clean combustible, removing ozone-destroying exhaust from your vehicle. When the pressure builds reaching 30-60 psi, you turn the key & go. You step on the pedal, you send more energy to the electrodes, & thus more vapor fuel (Hydrogen) to the cylinders, which in return creates more power. (The system also will create burnable even cleaner oxygen)

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Is methane production practical?
SKU: impp/ebook/000
Binding: pdf

A Backwoods Home Anthology ALTERNATIVE ENERGY Is methane production on your homestead practical? By Jim Tracy for a Homesteaders searching power source of energy independent of grids and pipelines may have to look no farther than the manure in the barn. This”waste”is teeming with bacteria that produce energy through a process that is almost as old as life itself. In the absence of oxygen, certain types of bacteria break down organic material and give off methane gas, the chief constituent in the natural gas utilities sell.

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Coal Bed Methane
SKU: cbm/ebook/000
Binding: ebook - pdf

Coal bed methane (CBM) is simply methane found in coal seams. CBM as a source of clean natural gas has immense potential. Methane gas is found trapped in fissures in coal and extraction reduces explosion hazards in mines, thereby reducing safety risks for miners. Thus, coal mine methane, a byproduct of mining operations, can be recovered to provide various types of benefits to a mining company.

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Natural Methane in the UK
SKU: nmituk/ebook/000/000
Binding: ebook - pdf

Up to half the country’s domestic gas heating could be met by turning waste into biogas, according to a new report from National Grid.

Biogas could give the UK a new reliable source of green energy as the North Sea gas reserves run down. The report looks at how all the biodegradable waste streams such as sewage, food and wood could be turned into biogas and injected into the gas distribution system. At the moment there is a small quantity of production of biogas in the UK coming from landfill and sewage plants, but it is being used to generate electricity. However, National Grid says these valuable waste resources could be used be used more efficiently. Turning them into biomethane could meet half the country’s domestic gas needs and help achieve renewable energy targets for 2020.

Biogas is produced by two main processes: anaerobic digestion which turns wet waste such as sewage and animal manure into biomethane, and gasification which is better suited to drier wastes and energy crops. Biomethane is already being produced and injected into gas grids in Europe. “Biogas has tremendous potential for delivering large scale renewable heat for the UK but it will require Government commitment to a comprehensive waste policy and the right commercial incentives,” said Janine Freeman, head of National Grid’s Sustainable Gas Group. “Biogas has benefits on so many fronts. It is renewable and could help to meet the target of 15% of all our energy coming from renewable sources by 2020. It provides a solution for what to do with our waste with the decline in landfill capacity and it would help the UK with a secure supply of gas as North Sea sources run down,” she said.

In cost terms, it is estimated that biogas would be a similar price to other renewable energy sources. However, because the country already has an extensive gas grid, there would be little need for disruptive infrastructure development or any major inconvenience to consumers in their homes or in their streets. The report concludes that there are no insurmountable technical difficulties to delivering biogas. The main hurdle will be about getting the right commercial incentives in place so waste can be turned into biomethane for gas grid injection rather than electricity. This needs to be allied with a comprehensive waste management policy.

National Grid, who commissioned Ernst and Young to provide the analysis, has now handed the report to Ed Miliband, Minister for Energy and Climate Change.

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Gas Fired furnace - free ebook
SKU: gff/ebook/000
Binding: ebook - pdf

These plans are for a gas-fired furnace.

With this small furnace you can melt down aluminum, brass and copper; preheat small, thick pieces of iron and steel for brazing or forging; caseharden soft steel; make up alloys and bake vitreous enamels on metals.

You can use either liquid propane or your home's gas lines.

The plans include information on tongs, on safety procedures, and plans for a base to set the furnace on.

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Sustainable Energy — without the hot air
SKU: ssewotha/ebook/000/000
Binding: ebook - pdf, 382 pages

About the author

David MacKay is a Professor in the Department of Physics at the University of Cambridge. He studied Natural Sciences at Cambridge and then obtained his PhD in Computation and Neural Systems at the California Institute of Technology. He returned to Cambridge as a Royal Society research fellow at Darwin College. He is internationally known for his research in machine learning, information theory, and communication systems, including the invention of Dasher, a software interface that enables efficient communication in any language with any muscle. He has taught Physics in Cambridge since 1995. Since 2005, he has devoted much of his time to public teaching about energy. He is a member of the World Economic Forum Global Agenda Council on Climate Change. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society on 14 May 2009.

About the "free book" license

This is a free book. I didn't write this book to make money. I wrote it because sustainable energy is important. If you would like to have the book for free for your own use, please help yourself to any of the electronic versions on this website. There's pdf and html versions (thanks to William Sigmund!); we are working on other formats.

This is a free book in a second sense: you are free to use all the material in this book, except for the cartoons and the photos with a named photographer, under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share-Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Licence. (The cartoons and photos are excepted because the authors have generally given me permission only to include their work, not to share it under a Creative Commons license.) You are especially welcome to use my materials for educational purposes. This website includes links to separate high-quality files for each of the figures in the book.

In response to generous readers...
If you enjoy the free electronic copy of the book and would like to make a financial donation, without buying the paper book for yourself, please may I suggest that you find a library or a school that would like a copy of the book, and buy a paper copy for them? Thank you!

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Handbook of Homemade Power - Mother Earth News
SKU: hhp/244/816
Binding: Paperback 374

Bantam 1974 374 p. Includes: illustrations, diagrams, index. 4-1/4" x 7". Alternative energy information, collected and published during the energy crisis of the 1970s. Sections on heating and powering your home with wood, water, wind, solar, and methane.

This book features firsthand reports from people who have found ways to beat the power crisis. This is priceless alternative energy information with many additional tips, facts and ideas that you can put to use now.

How to Build the ARTI Compact Biogas Digestor
SKU: htbacbd/ebook/000/000
Binding: pdf


Problem: Cooking fuel, waste disposal, inefficiency of traditional biogas cattle dung digesters

Idea: A very efficient process of biomethanisation thanks to high calorie content of the waste used for the bacteriological digestion. The system is usable by any household.

Difficulty:Construction: easy to medium, use: easy. The digester should be kept at temperatures between 32 & 37°C (89.6-98.6°F)

  • Price Range: About 100$ with new material
  • Material Needed: 2 plastic water tanks, one of 1cubic meter, the other of 0,75 cubic meter content, flexible pipe, stable
  • horizontal base, frame to stop the gas tank rise, inlet and outlet fittings
  • Geographic Area: Global, in temperate to cold climates, the plant has to be heated
  • Competencies: Simple plumbing skills
  • How Many people? 2
  • How Long does it take? From three to max. ten hours construction time, two weeks to start the methan production
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Improved Biogas Unit for Developing Countries
SKU: ibudc/ebook/000/000
Binding: pdf 84 pages

Tanzania is facing energy problems in both urban and rural areas.Fuel wood is the major source of supply of energy in rural areas. CAMARTEC was established in order to develop alternative sources of energy among its other objectives In the process of looking for International support to streng then its activities, the West Germany Government through GATE a branch of GTZ, accepted to establish a technical assistance to CAMARTEC that would deal with development and extension of renewable sources of energy which is BIOGAS. The Biogas Extension Service was then established in 1983.

The results that are seen today, are due to tireless effort by German experts and local counterparts who have designed, field tested and installed over 200 biogas units. The team has worked beyond the gas requirement to include slurry use for agricultural purposes. The technology has been accepted by farmers as indicated by their demand through willingness to pay for the biogas units. The ownership of a family size biogas unit which is built through CAMARTEC has become a status symbol and has improved the quality of life in the home. Energy obtained from the gas and the light at night have both given utility to the owners of the plants. I am very thankful to GTZ for the assistance extended to CAMARTEC.I also appreciate the expatriates contribution towards the success reached so far.

Tanzanian counterparts who work in the project also have contributed a lot and deserve my thanks. Lastly, I thank Mr. Ludwig Sasse for compiling this book which will be a useful reference material to many lovers of BIOGAS. I am looking forward to the use of the content embedded in the text and hope that his knowledge will contribute to solving Tanzania's rural energy needs. E.M.

Build your own biogas generator
SKU: byobg/ebook/000/000
Binding: pdf 5 pages
The apparatus you are going to build uses a discarded 18 litre water container as the “digester.” A mixture of water and animal manure will generate the methane, which you will collect in a plastic balloon. The 18 litre water container performs the same task as the stomach of a livestock animal by providing the warm, wet conditions favored by the bacteria that make the methane.
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A Chinese Biogas Manual
SKU: acbm/ebook/000/000
Binding: pdf - ebook, download. 136 pages.

Since the 1950s China has experimented with the production of biogas from agricultural wastes, a practice based upon an age-old Chinese tradition of composting human, animal and plant wastes to produce an organic fertilizer of high quality. The breakthrough came in 1975 when a process was developed to ferment the materials in an airtight and watertight container in order to produce methane gas. This was then collected for use as fuel for motors, cooking and lighting.

This plan is a translation of a Chinese manual. With 136 pages and numerouse diagrams it provides an excellent resource for the construction of digesters and the utilisation of the gas broduced.

Biogas in India
SKU: bii/ebook/000/000
Binding: pdf - ebook, download. 142 pages.

This guide is 142 pages and well illustrated with diagrams and tables.

From the preface

An important common theme underlies much of the current literature on the application of technology within both developed and developing nations. Any technology has a complex series of impacts on the environment in which that technology operates. The concern over a technology's "appropriateness" is based on the need to determine clearly who will be affected by use of the technology and in what ways* Behind the concept of "appropriate technology" is the belief that the complex interactions between a technology and its environment should be made "visible." Only then can a technology be evaluated properly. By describing explicitly the impact of a technology, the selection criteria for the technology also become explicit. If we choose a technology that pollutes a river, but which also provides permanent jobs for 10,000 workers, we presumably either value employment benefits over environmental costs or else were ignorant of the pollution effects at the time we made the decision.

The choice of a technology is "appropriate" or "inappropriate" only in the context of the demands we place upon it. The subtle trade-offs between these often conflicting demands are at the real core of any debate over the choice of a technology. Appropriate technology is less a problem of hardware than of appropriate data collection, decision-making, financing, installation, and use-- with all the problems of sorting out competing demands and value judgements in each of these tasks. This study is an assessment of the "appropriateness" of biogas technology in meeting some of the needs of India's rural population. Such an assessment is quite complicated, despite claims that a biogas system is a simple village-level technology. While there is evidence that biogas systems have great promise, they are subject to certain constraints. It is impossible to describe here all the factors that one might study to assess any technology. I only hope that the approach used in this study will help others.

One difficulty in studying biogas technology is the fragmented and often anecdotal nature of the research and development work. In order to provide this snapshot of the state-of-the-art in India, I have had to enlist the aid of a bewildering number of government officials, industrialists, university researchers, missionaries, social workers, journalists, voluntary groups I farmers, merchants, and villagers.

Fuel Gas From Cow Dung
SKU: fgfcd/ebook/000
Binding: pdf
It was slightly more than a quarter century ago that biogas plants first appeared as a practical source of renewable alternative energy. The idea took time to catch on and to be accepted, but these plants are now in world-wide use. In a recent fiveyear plan India set itself the task of installing 25,000 cowdung gas plants a year. China claims at present the present moment to have some 7,000,000 biogas plants scattered all over the country, ranging from small family plants to huge government installations for running buses, trucks and diesel-electric generators, besides steadily providing a collosal amount of rich fertilizer and humus for field and garden. The welcome given to FUEL GAS FROM COWDUNG by readers around the world has been very heartening. Since it first appeared it has several times been reprinted at the special request of UNICEF. We have the pleasure in offering the public the present third edition, which we hope will be still more useful to readers in developing countries. In preparing this edition we (the authors) have borrowed rather freely from articles which have appeared in the BIOGAS NEWSLETTER of Nepal. For permission to do so we are grateful to the Editors. We wish also to thank the Development and Consulting Services (D.C.S.) of Butwal, Nepal, for kindly allowing us to include designs of several appliances produced and perfected by them.

People living in remote areas of South-East Asia, or other tropical or sub-tropical countries, where electricty is not available and fuel is hard to get, have a very cheap, abundant and efficient fuel in the gas produced from ordinary cowdung. This gas (marsh gas or methane) is generated with the greatest ease simply by letting a slurry of cowdung and water ferment in a ;Yell-like pit without exposure to air. The gas rises LO the surface and collects in a drum, whence it is piped to the kitchen stove. A farmer with a couple of bulls or buffaloes for ploughing and one or two cos for milk gets enough dung every day to produce sufficient gas for all the cooking needs of a village family of six. The cooking is clean and hygienic, the pots do not get black, there is no smoke or smell, and the gas is non-toxic. And after extracting the gas to cook his food, and to light his house at night, the farmer still has all the dung left, well fermented and rotted, to fertilize his fields.

Fresh cowdung, or other animal dung (from horses, mules, donkeys, buffaloes, yaks, Pigs, pou3try) diluted with water and fermented by bacterium methanogenes, without exposure to air, delivers 90% of its potential gas within a period of four weeks, more than half of it within the first eight or ten days. Six weeks of fermentaticn produces about 98%. Hence the fermenting pit, in which daily additions \,f slurry enter at the bottom and gradually raise to overflow at the top, should be large enough to hold each day's addition for a minimum of four weeks or a maximum of six, i.e. from 30 to 40 days. In other words, the volume of the pit should be at least 30 times, or better 40 times, the volume of siurrjr added daily.

Build a Biogas Generator Activity Sheet
SKU: bbgas/000/000
Binding: 2 page pdf
Biogas is the name given to the gas that can be collected from decaying biomass. It is a mixture of about 60 per cent methane, 40 per cent carbon dioxide and trace amounts of hydrogen sulphide and nitrogen.
Building a biogas generator is simple and the diagram below shows you how to set one up. When your generator is complete, you will need to fill it with feedstock: this is the biomass that bacteria will break down to produce biogas.
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SKU: b/ebook/000/000
Binding: ebook - pdf - 420 pages
This book contains research on the chemistry of each step of biogas generation, along with engineering principles and practices, feasibility of biogas production in processing technologies, especially anaerobic digestion of waste and gas production system, its modeling, kinetics along with other associated aspects, utilization and purification of biogas, economy and energy issues, pipe design for biogas energy, microbiological aspects, phyto-fermentation, biogas plant constructions, assessment of ecological potential, biogas generation from sludge, rheological characterization, etc.
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Biogas Generator - model
SKU: bgm/ebook/000
Binding: pdf - 5 pages



Biogas is actually a mixture of gases, usually carbon dioxide and methane. It is produced by a few kinds of microorganisms, usually when air or oxygen is absent. (The absence of oxygen is called “anaerobic conditions.”) Animals that eat a lot of plant material, particularly grazing animals such as cattle, produce large amounts of biogas. The biogas is produced not by the cow or elephant, but by billions of microor- ganisms living in its digestive system. Biogas also develops in bogs and at the bottom of lakes, where decaying organic matter builds up under wet and anaerobic conditions.

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The Biodiesel Handbook
SKU: tbh/ebook/000/000
Binding: Pdf - 286 pages

The major components of vegetable oils and animal fats are triacylglycerols (TAG; often also called triglycerides). Chemically, TAG are esters of fatty acids (FA) with glycerol (1,2,3-propanetriol; glycerol is often also called glycerine; see Chapter 11). The TAG of vegetable oils and animal fats typically contain several different FA. Thus, different FA can be attached to one glycerol backbone. The different FA that are contained in the TAG comprise the FA profile (or FA composition) of the vegetable oil or animal fat. Because different FA have different physical and chemical proper- ties, the FA profile is probably the most important parameter influencing the corre- sponding properties of a vegetable oil or animal fat.

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Biogas - 20 ebooks for making your own Biogas Generator - Download
SKU: bd/ebook/000
Binding: Zip file, HTML, PDFs

This download is like a mini website. You will receive a zip file containing web pages, files, etc. There are 20 ebooks/PDFs, plus web links and video links all designed to help you understand better biogas productions. Many of the documents and videos are specifically chosen to help you create your own biogas project. You will need to unpack the ZIp file after download and click on index.html. 

Please note this is a large file of approximately 54mb.




The Ongoing Rise of Shale Gas
SKU: torosg/bcg/ebook/000
Binding: ebook - pdf & epub
This ebook gathers some of BCG's thinking on the dynamic shale-gas revolution, which is reshaping the U.S. energy landscape and stands to have a material effect on global energy markets.
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Build a Compost Toilet
SKU: agua/bact/7030g

Hurray for Humanure! Composting is taking the world by storm, this guide shows you how to build a $3000 compost toilet for less than $30.. Safe, sanitary, no unwanted odors. In fact I guarantee it’s healthier than your current toilet!

Popular Science air-cooled Hot Air Engine - Stirling Engine
SKU: peace/ebook/000/000
"Once the flame is lit, this charming hot air engine heats up for action in less than a minute. The Hot Air Engine, or Stirling Engine is now back on the desks of researchers and scientists due to the engines almost unique ability to run on any heat source. Many free engergy sources can be used to heat this type of engine, such as hot springs, solar power and even ice and snow. In this easy to make model Stirling Engine, the heat source fueled by alcohol. The engine if built to the specifications given, is capable of driving small models, pumping water or turning a fan. The Hot Air Engine does not require castings, but does require some turning on a mini-lathe and the use of a drill-press."

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